Today, Industrial revolution 4.0 is beginning to take shape to help erasing the frontiers between between physical, digital and biological areas in both production and life, as well as Professional Education. The breakthroughs of new technologies (artificial Intelligence /AI, robot, Internet, independent learning facility, Printing 3D, nano technology….) will have strong impacts to the social life, in which there is Professional Education: list of professional training should be adjusted, updated; There will be connection of different area shaping new training professions, especially those related to the interacts between person and machine (for example, illusive assistance, illusive service, illusive secretary). The virtual classroom, illusive teachers, virtual equipments are will become a tendency in vocational training in the coming time.
* The given issues and solutions for professional Education in Vietnam
In the Industry 4.0 này, labor market will be seriously challenge between labor supplying and demanding as well as the workforce structure. The economy with high automation request the labors to be quickly adaptive to the changes of production, is not they would be redundant, unemployment. In some area, with the appearance of Robot, the number of staff will be reduced 1/10 in comparison with today. So, 9/10 of remained human resources have to change their occupations or be jobless. A lot of old occupations will be loosed and instead of that there will be new professions. Labor market will be strongly differentiated between low skills labor group and highly skilled labor group. The cheap labors are not competitive advantages like before. Even the labors having middle level (intermediate or junior college level) will be influenced, if they could not be equipped with new skills – creative skills for the economy 4.0.
These changes of production and human resource structure in labor market in the future, establish many issues for Professional Education of Vietnam:
- -Firstly, the professional education institutions have to strongly innovate their training activities and school governance to produce “products” – future labors capable to work in creative and competitive environment. At present, however, the “inertia” of many years of training by direction of supplying with hard curricula and old training methods. Knowledge and skills of learners are not meting demands of existing economy 3.0.
- Secondly, for supplying workforce for creative economy, it is necessary to change training activities, especially delivery modes and training methods, extensively using IT application. However, at present the conditions ensuring for these changes are limited. Recently, in framework of national environment program , vocational training have deployed project activities for IT application
in management; teaching activities and vocational training start to experiment digitalization, practical simulation, but it is only pilot operation, not be enlarged much
- Thirdly, Industry 4.0 requests that training devices and methods should be chaned: Visual training, simultation, digitalize lessons will be a trend in future vocational training. This impacts on distribution of managers services and teaching staff of vocational trainign institutions. They should be professionalized with high creativity, advanced training methods with strog usage of IT application. Teacher scale and structure (in both qualification and skills) will be changes, there will be the phenomen of redandunce and shortage of human resources; this is the issue challenging vocational training institutions.
- Fourthly, need to innovate school model by direction: ”what is needed by market and will be needed”. The connection between vocational institutions and enterprises is requirement that was given long time ago, from the Vocational training Law in 2006, but relationships to link schools with enterprise, between training and labor using are still very ‘loose”. Recently, Career Education Law (2015) has specified more detailed on this issue, however there is not much results in reality for evaluation.
- Fifthly, the issue of innovation of management at both macro and micro (institutional) levels for professional education. The appearance of visual classroom, illusive occupation, illusive program and the demand of labor market in the new creative skills, request the common management to ensure the qualified “platform”, on the other hand, to meeting the diversified demands of the creative and competitive economy. However, this is the problem of management affairs at both macro and institutional levels, the legislative system are in the process of adjustment and completion. In terms of management, in order to unify the quality platform, it requests to build standards and organize training according to the outcome learning standards. At present, MOLISA/General Department of vocational training is developing this kind of activities, but there is the shortage the resources and experiences, that requests to promote strong international cooperation between experts, professional organization in the country and in abroad.
From the above mentioned issues, to improve the training quality, in our opinion, it is necessary to implement the following solutions:
1. To innovate institutional policy mechanism
- To perfect policy mechanism for the related subjects; To perfect policy mechanism on distribution and usage of funding in vocational training sub-sector. In that, pay special attention on innovation of recruitment, using and upgrading teaching faculty. To innovate the salary policy for teacher for attracting those people having knowledge, skills working as teacher in vocational training.
- Enhancing autonomy in academic activities and school governance in aiming to meet flexibly and adaptively to the changes of science – technology and demands of labor market.
2. Innovation, IT application in management
- To perfect state management mechanism on professional education with clear differentiation of mission, function, tasks, rights and duties, linked with accountability; To reduce the prevention of Auspice Agencies in academic and governance affairs of the school/colleges; Normalization , professionalization of managers for vocational training in all levels; promote the management tools.
- Intensive application of IT in management of vocational training; to set up national data base on vocational training. Modernization of IT infrastructure in wk=hole system serving management affairs of vocational training.
- To build I-library, on-line training system, encourage vocational institutions to build virtual classrooms, multi media rooms, specialized rooms,, system of illusive equipments, simulation, virtual-practical equipments…
3. Innovation and academic affairs
- Conduct modular training, credit-system application and development of online course. Training programs should be flexible, meting learning outcome standards, on the other hand be articulated with different levels, articulation within on occupation and between various professions.
- To change training methods based on the “Students centered” and IT application in designing lesions. At the same time to innovate testing and examinations by direction to meeting working capacity and creativity of the learners.
4. Enhance capacity and quality of teaching staff, managers of professional education
For meeting the training demands in new environment, teaching faculty should have new capacities, creative ability and it requests new qualification based on normalization, though training activities, self train and upgrade professional knowledge, vocational skills, pedagogical skills and other necessary soft skills.
- Innovate curricula, training materials, improve pedagogical professions, vocational skills for teachers based on the standard of vocational teachers. To organizes the training and upgrading course with pedagogic skills and vocational skills for teachers in abroad and advanced programs in the country.
5. Development of training at enterprises and connection with companies for conducting of training activities
Academic activities should be connected with enterprises for reducing the gaps between training, researching and implementing. Therefore, in one hand to promote training development in companies, development of schools in enterprises. On the other hand, enhance connection between vocational institutions and enterprises based on the social accountability of the enterprises in order to make the enterprises becoming the real “extended arms” in training operation of the vocational institutions.
6. Promote scientific research, technological transfer
- Enhancing application research activities, technological research, teaching facilities and IT application in teaching and academic management.
- Enhancing scientific research quality in vocational institutions, link research with transferring at the institutions. Pay attention on simulation research, interactive research between people- machine.
7. Enhancing international cooperation in vocational education
- Promotion of multilateral and bilateral cooperation in vocational training like research and academic exchange; improvement of teachers and managers; school governance… at the same time to create favorable conditions in legislative environment for foreign investors to open excellent vocational institutions in Vietnam./.
Dr. Nguyen Hong Minh
General Department of Vocational Training