E-Publication :
14:36' 11/15/2022

In recent years, Vietnam's economy has been developing miraculously, with an increasingly large and vibrant labor market. Therefore, the work of vocational education (TVET) has been paid more attention. On the State side, the TVET system has been moved to be placed under the unified management by the General Department of Vocational Education and Training, the Ministry of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs. In fact, more and more students after graduating from high school have chosen to go to vocational training instead of going to university. It can be said that Vocational Education in Vietnam has made great strides, meeting the requirements of the domestic labor market and gradually integrating with the international market.

However, the TVET system Currently, it only focuses on providing learners with knowledge, skills and self-control to meet the requirements of the job, but has not paid enough attention to technology education for employees. This is an extremely important issue because in the relationship with employers, workers are often in a weak and vulnerable position. Especially in the context that Vietnam participates in many new-generation free trade agreements with many high commitments on labor and workers' rights in the process of production and supply of goods and products. Pupils and students at TVET institutes are human resources directly involved in the production process, creating products, therefore, educating and equipping them with knowledge of technology and self-preservation skills. protecting oneself in labor relations is necessary and urgent, national, regional and international.

I. Human rights education and Human rights education in TVET

1. Human rights education

According to UNESCO, Human Rights Education (HRE) is an integral part of the right to education and is increasingly recognized as a HRM. Knowledge of rights and freedoms is considered a fundamental tool to ensure respect for the rights of all. Education should include values ​​such as peace, non-discrimination, equality, justice, tolerance and respect for human dignity. Quality education based on the HRM approach means that rights are exercised throughout the education system and in all learning environments. Since 2005, UNESCO has implemented the Global Program on HRM Education. This program was established in accordance with United Nations General Assembly resolution 59/113 of 10 December 2005 and builds on the achievements of the United Nations Decade for HRM Education (1995-2004). The program aims to promote a common understanding of the fundamentals and methodology of HRM education, provide a framework for action, and invest in building partnerships and cooperation from the ground up. international to grassroots initiatives. The program is structured in phases: the first phase (2005-2009) focuses on HRM education in the system of primary and lower secondary schools; the second phase (2010-2014) focuses on HRM education for higher education and HRM training programs for teachers, educators, civil servants, law enforcement officers and military personnel; phase three (2015-2019) focuses on strengthening implementation in the first two phases and promoting HRM training for media professionals and journalists. provides a framework for action as well as investment in building partnerships and cooperation from the international level to grassroots initiatives. The program is structured in phases: the first phase (2005-2009) focuses on HRM education in the system of primary and lower secondary schools; the second phase (2010-2014) focuses on HRM education for higher education and HRM training programs for teachers, educators, civil servants, law enforcement officers and military personnel; phase three (2015-2019) focuses on strengthening implementation in the first two phases and promoting HRM training for media professionals and journalists. provides a framework for action as well as investment in building partnerships and cooperation from the international level to grassroots initiatives. The program is structured in phases: the first phase (2005-2009) focuses on HRM education in the system of primary and lower secondary schools; the second phase (2010-2014) focuses on HRM education for higher education and HRM training programs for teachers, educators, civil servants, law enforcement officers and military personnel; phase three (2015-2019) focuses on strengthening implementation in the first two phases and promoting HRM training for media professionals and journalists. the second phase (2010-2014) focuses on HRM education for higher education and HRM training programs for teachers, educators, civil servants, law enforcement officers and military personnel; phase three (2015-2019) focuses on strengthening implementation in the first two phases and promoting HRM training for media professionals and journalists. the second phase (2010-2014) focuses on HRM education for higher education and HRM training programs for teachers, educators, civil servants, law enforcement officers and military personnel; phase three (2015-2019) focuses on strengthening implementation in the first two phases and promoting HRM training for media professionals and journalists.

According to UNESCO, HRM Education (human rights education) is all learning aimed at building knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors about HRM. It is an empowerment process that starts from the individual to the community. HRM education aims to develop an understanding of everyone's shared responsibility to make HRM a reality in each community and in society at large. In this sense, it contributes to the long-term prevention of HRM violations and violent conflict, to the promotion of equality and sustainable development, and to increased participation in decision-making processes in a democratic system. .

In a more specific sense, the term “HRM education” includes education in democratic citizenship and education in respect and mutual understanding, all of which are based on internationally agreed HRM standards. best. These three areas are considered interconnected and essential in education systems to prepare young people to be active, responsible and caring participants in the community, as well as at the high school level. national and global. HRM education is defined as education, training and information provision aimed at building a cultural spectrum of human rights. A comprehensive HRM education not only provides knowledge about human rights and the mechanisms for their protection, but also imparts the skills necessary to promote, protect and apply HRM in life. daily.

2. Human rights education in vocational education

According to Article 4 of the Law on Vocational Education 2014 , TVET is aimed at training direct human resources for production, business and services, with professional practice capacity corresponding to the training level; be ethical and healthy; have professional responsibility; have the ability to be creative and adapt to the working environment in the context of international integration; to ensure the improvement of productivity and quality of labor; create conditions for learners after completing the course to have the ability to find jobs, create self-employment or study to a higher level. This is also the common goal of TVET in Vietnam today.

Vocational education consists of 03 levels of training: Beginner, Intermediate, and College, which are carried out in vocational training centers, intermediate schools, colleges, enterprises and related agencies, organizations and individuals. vocational education activities in Vietnam.Each level of training is defined with its own objectives: to train at the elementary level so that learners are capable of performing simple tasks of a profession; provide intermediate-level training for learners to be capable of performing elementary-level jobs and perform a number of complex jobs of a major or profession; have the ability to apply techniques and technologies to work, work independently and in groups; and provide college-level training so that learners have the ability to perform intermediate-level jobs and deal with complex jobs of majors or professions; having the ability to be creative, to apply modern techniques and technologies to work, to guide and supervise others in the group to do the work.

Thus, the subjects of vocational education in TVET are very wide and diverse, including all individuals in vocational education centers, intermediate schools, colleges, and businesses and agencies, organizations and individuals. related to TVET activities in Vietnam, they can be students, but they can also be workers who have been/are participating in the labor market, including vulnerable groups participating in the labor market. participate in vocational education and training activities. In addition, teachers, educators and VET managers, employers are also important subjects that need to focus on vocational education. They are both the subject of education and the object of education.

On the basis of identifying the subjects and objects of HRM education, based on the content of Decision No. 1309/QD-TTg approving the Scheme to include human rights content in the educational curricula in the national education system , It is necessary to specify the content and curriculum of vocational education in TVET as follows:

Regarding the content of HRM education :

- For administrators, teachers, lecturers: Basic contents of HRM, citizenship; Perspectives, policies of the Party, and the State law of Vietnam on technology, especially vocational education and employment; International Convention on Quality Assurance to which Vietnam is a member; Documents of the International Labor Organization (ILO) on labor rights.

- For students: Basic content of vocational education, citizenship, especially vocational education in the field of vocational education and employment; HRM protection mechanisms; Skills in applying HRM in professional activities; settle disputes arising in labor relations; Rights and obligations of employees and employers in labor relations.

About the HRM Education Program:

- For managers, lecturers, teachers: it is necessary to provide materials to improve knowledge about HRM for managers, teachers and lecturers.

- For students:

+ Beginner students: The program integrates HRM into training content so that learners have the ability to perform simple jobs of a profession while being aware of their rights and taking responsibility for the results. their work and products with respecting the rights of others, promoting their own development, striving to become a responsible member of society.

      + Intermediate level students: The program integrates HRM into the training content so that learners have the ability to perform jobs at the elementary level and perform some complex jobs of the major or profession. ; have the ability to apply techniques and technologies to work, work independently and in groups. In addition, learners need to be supplemented with knowledge about workers' rights, employers' rights, occupational safety...

+ College students: The program integrates HRM into training content so that learners have the ability to perform intermediate-level jobs and deal with complex jobs of majors or professions. ; having the ability to be creative, to apply modern techniques and technologies to work, to guide and supervise others in the group to do the work. In addition, students need to be equipped with more knowledge about HRM in the era of science and technology revolution 4.0, equality, non-discrimination...

II. The TVET system and the current situation of vocational education in TVET institutions

1. Actual situation of teachers, students, and students at TVET institutions

As of June 2021, the whole country has 83,959 teachers teaching at 3,024 VET establishments ., of which 28,472 teachers are female (accounting for 35.4%); counting the public vocational training institutions alone, there are 47,465 people. At colleges, there are 37,235 teachers, of which 16,518 are female (accounting for 44.0%). At secondary schools, there are 13,295 teachers, of which 4,998 are female teachers (accounting for 37.6%). At VET centers, there are 23,086 teachers, of which 4,079 are female (accounting for 22.3%). At other establishments participating in vocational education activities, there are 10,343 teachers, of which 2,877 are female teachers (accounting for 34.9%).

Regarding pupils and students, there are currently 2,190,000 pupils and students in the whole country, of which 229,547 are in college, 280,435 at intermediate level, 987,004 in elementary school and 692,996 children in under 3 months. Female students are 649,916, accounting for 29.7% and students from ethnic minorities are 219,429, accounting for 10%.

2. The reality of technology education in TVET institutions

The Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs has issued Circular 13/2018/TT-BLDTBXH dated September 26, 2018 promulgating the Law course curriculum under the general subjects in the intermediate level training program. , college level (not applicable to training disciplines and occupations under the state management function of the Ministry of Education and Training), in which, intermediate level training: 15 hours, qualification training college: 30 hours, content of HRM has been added to the legal textbooks used in vocational schools. The content of QCD education includes the rights and obligations of citizens, the law on labor….

In addition, at a number of law colleges, in 2019, to prepare to upgrade 03 intermediate schools into colleges, the Ministry of Justice issued a college qualification framework program for two codes of law and law. legal services, for vocational education institutions of the Ministry. These programs approach different career positions, however, the rights-based approach as well as the basic contents of HRM , although existing, only stops at spontaneity ; c does not have a methodical approach, throughout the process of designing and organizing the implementation of the training program from goal setting, subject selection and teaching and learning organization methods.

In addition, technology education activities in TVET institutions are aimed at equipping students with knowledge about technology, towards respecting the technology of the progressive young generation, which is carried out by both formal training programs at universities and colleges. educational and training institutions, forms of informal education. Non-formal form is mainly carried out through the week of civic activities as soon as students and new students enter the school, or through competitions to learn the law, through the opening of training and retraining courses. , training on human rights, children's rights, women's rights/gender equality... by the Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs, the National Assembly's Committee on Youth, Adolescents and Children and a number of agencies, Departments and branches at the central and local levels implemented with technical support from international organizations.

III. Advantages and disadvantages of vocational education in TVET


1.     Advantages

Firstly, the implementation of technology education in Vietnam in general and in TVET in particular is in line with the trend in the world and in Vietnam.

HRM education has become a worldwide trend, including Vietnam. United Nations organizations, developed countries in the world all have HRM education programs, including HRM education programs in education such as: The Consortium's Project of HRM Education and Youth Employment Europe (2018), programs and publications on technology education in TVET by the Australian Human Rights Commission... Besides, organizations working on technology are increasing and operating effectively in Vietnam. This is a great source of support in terms of experience, training and protection of specific practical cases for Vietnam in the cause of HRM education. In particular, their HRM education activities are organized very often, deeply and widely, using a method that combines theory and practice to handle cases that need support on human rights. Thereby,

Up to now, Vietnam has signed, ratified and acceded to 07 main UN conventions on international law, 7/8 basic conventions of the International Labor Organization (excluding conventions issued by international organizations). other passed). The education of HRM is one of the responsibilities of each Member State. Including the responsibility to implement international treaties, bring the content of HRM to everyone in society, that is the way to exercise the right to be educated about HRM. The promotion of HRM education not only fulfills commitments before the international community, but also has an important meaning for the international community to clearly see the achievements in protecting and ensuring HRM, so that they can better understand the efforts of the international community. efforts of the Government of Vietnam, and at the same time share difficulties and impacts on the protection of HRM; thereby overcoming the passive situation in foreign propaganda activities.


In Vietnam, from the Party's point of view to the adjustment of the law, the issue of national sovereignty has been deeply concerned through the recognized regulations on civil rights, and at the same time there is a mechanism to ensure and protect these rights. . The issue of HRM is increasingly concerned by all classes of society, which leads to a new way of thinking and acting on HRM in which the need to learn about HRM as well as the need to protect it tends to increase. increase at the individual, organizational and societal levels. Decision No. 1309/QD-TTg approving the Scheme to introduce HRM content into the educational curricula in the national education system, in which there is a particularly important task, which is to include HRM content into the VET program., training at elementary level, intermediate level, college level and other vocational training programs is a clear demonstration of Vietnam's political commitment to promote HRM education in the education system. education, thereby spreading to the whole society and individuals.

Second, the physical facilities and human resources for teachers have initially met the requirements

The training of high-quality human resources at the postgraduate level in HRM in recent years in Vietnam has initially met the requirements in terms of quantity and quality. In addition, facilities and facilities such as funding for HRM training are focused, HRM practice rooms, QC documents are conducted, diversified investment in both content and form is one of the resources for learners to access and handle situations.

The quality of TVET teachers has been gradually improved in terms of training level, vocational skills and pedagogical capacity. In terms of professional qualifications, basically 100% of teachers meet the standards of training qualifications, of which 76.9% of teachers have university and post-graduate degrees (of which women account for 40%), 17, 7% of teachers have college and intermediate degrees and 5.4% have other qualifications. Regarding pedagogy, about 95% of teachers teaching in colleges, 85% of teachers teaching in intermediate schools and 80% of teachers teaching in VET centers meet pedagogical standards. Regarding vocational skills, about 70 % of VET teachers meet vocational skills standards to teach practice, integrated teaching.

Most of the teachers are dedicated , devoted to the cause of vocational education, have good qualities and morals. Some teachers have been conferred the title of People's Teacher, Excellent Teacher and other noble awards, thousands of teachers have been recognized as excellent teachers at all levels.

Thirdly, the characteristics of TVET that combine theory and practice, in which focus on practice, practice-based training will help technology education and integration of technology education more effectively.

In HRM education, the combination of theoretical education on HRM with practice (practice) of HRM implementation is an urgent requirement in the organization of HRM teaching or in other words it is a HRM training method. To implement this method, it is necessary to have appropriate ways to avoid being too theoretical or too practical. The imbalance in the combination of the two factors of theory and practice will easily lead to the perception in thinking or in action may be erroneous.

Currently, most TVET institutes have developed training programs to ensure the ratio/duration of theory is 30% and practice 70%. This is a very good basis for HRM education combining theory and practice. Learners can immediately practice self-defense situations, protect or be protected by others, so the applicability will be high. The combination of theory and for students to be assessed, self-solving problems in practice will increase their ability to memorize much longer and will make students more interested in the lecture, thinking systematically. and high level of criticism, thereby, more deeply remembering the content of the HRMs and improving the ability to solve real-life situations, and at the same time, promoting initiative, self-reliance and active learning in students. learner.

Besides, propaganda activities on TVET are now being strongly promoted. Many big activities are organized every year such as: Start-up Day for students, VET students, Ceremony to honor excellent students and students, typical of TVET, Vietnam Vocational Skills Day (October 4 every year). , Annual enrollment and career orientation day; The project "Building a culture of behavior in schools for the period of 2018-2025" ... Educational activities on HRM can completely be integrated into these activities to create pervasiveness and influence.

Fourth, students in TVET institutions are an open-minded generation, able to accept new things and have high responsibility to themselves and the community.

This is a great advantage for combining theory and practice of HRM implementation. Learners in TVET institutions are a group of subjects who have reached a certain level of awareness, but most importantly, they have the ability to connect with the community, connect with the world very quickly and effectively, and they form personal responsibility towards themselves and the community. Therefore, receiving HRM education for them is necessary as a need of understanding and discovery as well as the goal of professional activities, perfecting personality. Therefore, they are willing and excited to receive HRM knowledge through a combination of theory and practice.

2. Difficulties, limitations

Besides the advantages, the problem of vocational education in the VET system has many limitations and difficulties compared to other levels of education.

Firstly, TVET institutions, including teachers and learners, have not been properly aware of the importance and value of technology education and the amount of time devoted to general and theoretical subjects is very limited.

Due to the specificity of the field, the training of technical education with the viewpoint of training and improving professional skills is the main thing, so in fact many general subjects such as political education, law, informatics, foreign languages ​​are important. Physical education and national defense and security education are not focused on by students, and the duration for these subjects is also shorter than that of other levels. For HRM education, the optimal option is to integrate Law subjects currently being trained at TVET institutes. According to Circular No. 13/2018/TT-BLDTBXH dated September 26, 2018 promulgating the Law Subject Program , the entire Law course consists of 06 lessons with a total duration of 15 hours, while Project 1309 provides determined: "For colleges that are not part of the law school, administration, and internal affairs, the HRM contents are integrated and integrated into law or general law subjects, with a duration of at least 6 hours, including: knowledge test for all training disciplines”. This is a big challenge in arranging and arranging the program to ensure the full content of the program and to be consistent with the general training program.

Awareness of the importance of technology education is still very limited at TVET institutions, for both teachers and students, along with the limited amount of time devoted to theoretical subjects, thus, to promote Promoting education in HRM requires a long, regular process, carried out through the subjects and integrated into the entire training process.

Secondly, the types of training and training subjects in TVET are very diverse, so building an in-depth and unified curriculum on technology quality in TVET is a very elaborate work.

It is difficult to put HRM education into a separate subject in TVET, so the inclusion of HRM content in the curriculum depends on the awareness of the need, the training profession and the capacity of the students. each TVET institution. Issues related to the right to be integrated in the curricula of legal subjects with very limited and stub duration, depend on the requirements of the subjects for the lecturers and the knowledge of the field. Teacher's QC. Even for legal subjects, institutions that have trained educational administrators since 2014 have all shared the "General Law" textbook issued by the Ministry of Education and Training. Lecture contentneither shows any content related to the rights-based approach as well as the learner's competency requirements for HRM content, only requires learners to: " master basic knowledge of House country and the law in general and about the State and the legal system of Vietnam ” and have the ability to “ apply the learned knowledge, update the current law and properly apply the law in practice. " ,Even the article on Labor Law as a compulsory module has not been approached in the direction that graduates will become workers and therefore need to master and exercise their own rights well in the field of law. labor system that is aiming to train legal officers, who set the rules and regulations in this field or who work as legal consultants on labor. Therefore, students are only exposed to HRM to a very limited extent, knowledge of HRM is obtained sporadically. Therefore, it is not possible to have a comprehensive view of HRM, from which it is difficult to form a sense of respect for HRM in students.

In addition, the subjects participating in VET are very diverse, from young people, working people, and vulnerable groups, and TVET institutes train different professions... Therefore, in order to be able to building a new program or integrated program, it is necessary to review and re-evaluate the entire program of existing subjects, and at the same time, for each level (beginner, intermediate, college) and type training (at schools, at enterprises), training content needs to be determined and built appropriately, it is not possible to apply a common set of programs and a unified method. Most importantly, the content and methods must ensure a rights-based approach.

Thirdly, teachers are the ones who play a decisive role in ensuring the quality of training, however, besides the strong points, the quality of VET teachers still has many shortcomings .

The level of vocational skills of teachers in general is still uneven, still limited in some professions. The percentage of teachers who can teach both theory and practice is low (about 51 %), in which, teachers who teach theory have limited professional skills, and teachers who teach practice have limited professional knowledge. This is a big challenge for teachers in meeting the requirements of vocational education reform when it is required that at least 65% of teachers in colleges and 60% of teachers in intermediate schools can teach. Moderate theory teaches practice (integrated teaching). Language and computer skills of the team teachers are low, affecting the ability to update new technology, the ability to apply information technology to the teaching process. Skills in program development, curriculum development, and training materials are still weak, especially for teachers in secondary schools, local VET centers and non-public VET institutions.

Although in recent years the highly qualified human resource in HRM has increased much more than before, but it has not yet met the deep requirements in theory and broad in practice. The working process is still leaning heavily on theory, practical issues have not really brought into play. In addition, people who have been trained intensively in HRM just stop at the object of being teachers teaching about law and civic education; Other professions are very limited. Therefore, the person who teaches about HRM mainly stops at the person who understands the law but lacks the practical element. TVET has the advantage of having a lot of practice time, students can experience theory through vocational practice, but for HRM education, in order to be able to practice the theory of QCD, convey HRM issues through situation. In particular situations, teachers need a deep understanding of HRM, rights thinking and sensitivities as a HRM expert. In addition, in order to develop rights-based training materials and methods, teachers and experts must be knowledgeable in international law, HRM issues based on international standards, However, the current vocational training staff is still limited in terms of foreign language ability and access to international issues, so this will be a major barrier to the process of building technology. program as well as organize future training.

In addition to the above main difficulties and limitations, there are still many issues that need to be considered and researched in the process of building and organizing technology education at TVET institutions. Similar to other developing countries, VET in Vietnam is still considered as a "low point" in the national education system, a "second choice" after general education and higher education. Therefore, the input level of most students is still quite low, so the acquisition of knowledge about HRM will face many difficulties.

 IV. Proposing solutions and approaches to advanced technology education in TVET

 On the basis of assessing the advantages as well as difficulties and limitations for vocational education in TVET, some immediate solutions need to be implemented as follows:

Firstly, in order to build a complete educational program and effective educational methods, first of all, it is necessary to conduct surveys and survey training programs at TVET institutions to see the full picture of the situation. status of vocational education, from which there is a basis to propose directions to integrate technology education into the vocational education program.

Secondly, in parallel with the process of developing programs and training staff, in the field of TVET, propaganda needs to be one step ahead to change thinking about the value of technology and the importance of protecting technology in the world. learners, teachers and VET institutions so that when accessing training programs, teachers and students can actively and easily access and receive new knowledge.

Third, complete the block of knowledge and new teaching methods in HRM subject education, build modern and attractive lectures; compiling curricula, books and educational materials for each specific group of educational subjects. Currently, there is no common and unified curriculum; There are not enough documents for HRM education for each target group. It is necessary to identify the specific characteristics of TVET in order to set the objectives, content and methods of vocational education in a reasonable manner, while ensuring the objectives of VET and avoiding duplication and overlapping with other types of education. otherIn which, in addition to general knowledge about HRM, civil rights, most importantly, VET students need to be fully equipped with knowledge about labor-related rights, including Vietnamese labor law. and the basic rights of workers according to international labor standards to which Vietnam is a member, because they will be the ones who directly participate in the labor market and labor relations in the future. In addition, for each specific profession, it is necessary to determine the content of HRM that needs to be included in the curriculum, which can be directly in the textbook or integrated in the practice process, especially in dangerous occupations. risks to the health or dignity of workers.

Fourthly, organize training courses for source teachers and teachers at VET institutions according to topics suitable to their professional fields to improve knowledge, strengthen theories of technology for teachers and increase their ability to learn. the ability to approach and solve HRM situations associated with occupations in practice, how can VET teachers be able to combine theoretical education on HRM with practice (practice) implementation of HRM in TVET

Fifth, besides educational activities at TVET institutes and enterprises, it is necessary to organize extra-curricular activities, competitions in all forms such as debate, debate, etc. about outstanding HRM situations. ; can be integrated into the propaganda activities currently being carried out to create an environment for technology training in TVET institutions.

Sixth, ensure that the facilities meet the requirements of using the method of combining theoretical education on HRM with practice (practice) implementing HRM in TVET such as investing in practice rooms so that students can practice debating and speaking. At the same time, strengthen documentary resources on HRM theory and synthesize HRM defense cases to make research and training materials. In particular, textbooks, textbooks and reference books on HRM need to be invested in both quality and form, widely distributed and regularly revised and updated so that learners and teachers can access them. rich source material.

In summary, combining theoretical education on technology with practice (practice) implementing technology in vocational education is a modern, highly effective method with many implementation methods but also requires many requirements and conditions. conditions in terms of policy, material and human resources. For HRM education to develop more and more effectively in Vietnam, it is necessary to synchronously use many solutions to overcome difficulties and promote existing favorable factors.

Vu Lan Huong
Deputy Chief of Office, DVET


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