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The success factors of Germany's dual vocational training system and the reference value for Vietnam (Continue)
8:49' 8/21/2019

1. Cohesion between the Government and industry/business
In Germany’s dual vocational training system, cohesion between the Government and industry/business is reflected by the two sides’ investment in the dual vocational training system, coordinate with trade unions to develop training professions, develop training standards and organize learner assessment. In order to assist businesses in training, the Government also invests in inter-company training centers run by the Vietnam Chamber of Commerce Industry to provide additional training for incapable businesses to train in the enterprise (in - company training) according to the training standards in the enterprise. The government wants businesses to participate in vocational training to meet the human resources required by the labour market. On the other hand, businesses benefit from the contribution of learners in the training process and also implement social responsibility.
The reference value for Vietnam is to further strengthen the connection with businesses and social organizations in vocational training, promoting the participation of enterprises in direct training, encouraging the establishment of training institutions in enterprises to train cohesion with market labour market. The Government should study additional training mechanisms for learners when enterprises do not have full training capacity according to training standards. This mechanism will encourage businesses to boldly participate in training and increase training scale. The support of vocational training institutions under training orders of enterprises should also be promoted. Strengthening the linkage between the Government and industry/enterprises in developing training standards and national occupational skill standards; promote cooperation between vocational training institutions and enterprises in the process of implementing training (such as building programs, inviting business representatives to teach at vocational training institutions, participating in assessing and examining learners…). It should be noted that effective cooperation between the Government and the Sector / Enterprise or the linkage between enterprises and vocational training institutions must be based on the practical benefits of the parties.
2. Training at work
In the dual training model, with 70% of training time in the enterprise means that learners learn a lot in practical working environment. This encourages learners to strive to take on the work of the business, to help students have the motivation to study, to reduce the dropout rate and to promote social integration of learners. Most students in vocational schools in Vietnam today have to wait until the last semester to experience and practice at enterprises, so the amount of training in the working environment actually only accounts for about 20% of the program educate. In order to improve the quality of training, schools need to create conditions for students to experience more and earlier at enterprises outside the final training session as prescribed. Schools need to have close coordination with enterprises so that the internship and training time at the enterprise can be maximized. When the arrangement for children to experience at enterprises is still difficult, improving the effectiveness of practical training at vocational schools is also an important solution. It is necessary to create a practice environment at the school such as a working environment at enterprises, from the layout of factories, equipment, hygiene and safety requirements, industrial style to guidance and supervision, assess practice results for learners.
3. National training standards
In the dual training system, adherence to training standards ensures the quality of qualifications despite training in different businesses in different areas. This creates more job opportunities for learners, facilitating labour mobility and promoting lifelong learning. According to Vietnam's Law on Education and Training in 2014, training institutions are proactive in developing training programs, but training programs and training organizations must ensure the minimum amount of knowledge and demand for capacity that learners achieve after graduation (stipulated in Circular No. 12/2017 / TT-BLĐTBXH) that can be understood as training standards for each occupation. The reference value for Vietnam when studying the German training standards is to pay special attention to the participation of the industry / business when developing new training professions or building training standards, focusing on the France, how to develop training standards to ensure the quality of training standards, ensure the connection between training standards and national qualification framework. Within each training standard, it is necessary to study and supplement the training plan, the distribution structure of the content and training schedule and the requirements of learner assessment for each standard set. Occupation (currently not available in the provisions of Circular No. 12 above). In addition, each set of training standards issued should also include specific guidelines and suggestions to facilitate the implementation of the schools. Updating and supplementing training standards with each occupation should also be focused on training to really meet the current and future requirements of the industry.
4. Qualifications, capacity of teachers and vocational trainers.
People who teach in enterprises and teachers of vocational schools are considered as the "backbone" of the national vocational training system. Teachers at vocational schools or in-house teachers (full-time teaching) must meet very high requirements for qualifications, professional skills, pedagogical skills and practical experience at the workplace. And part-time teachers in enterprises do not have to meet the requirements for qualifications but must be good at vocational skills. The lesson with us here is that the capacity of teachers is always one of the most important quality assurance conditions. When the demand for vocational teachers in Vietnam is not as high as in Germany, it is necessary to focus on training and retraining of teachers, especially on pedagogical skills, practical skills and practical experience in the workplace.

5. Focus on research on vocational training and labor market associated with vocational training
The BIBB Institute is a federal government agency that performs vocational training and the labor market associated with vocational training. The data, information on the dual vocational training system and the German labor market always ensure systematic, detailed and updated. Clearly, the research on vocational training and the labor market associated with vocational training is the foundation for policy making and the right solution in vocational training. This success factor of the German vocational training system has a great reference value to Vietnam, especially in the condition that the supply-demand training problem in Vietnam is much more difficult than CHLB. Germany because there are very few enterprises in Vietnam participating in vocational training.
The government should soon issue a system of basic statistical indicators, analysis in the field of vocational education and develop the vocational education information system from the grassroots level to the management agencies at all levels. The labor market information system also needs to be invested and developed. The vocational training institutions need to deploy the internal management information system, first of all the system of monitoring key training indicators (key performance indicators - KPIs) for each training program (number of students entering study, continued student rate, student completion rate, graduation rate, student employment rate after graduation) and effective implementation of surveys with users Labor and with graduates to have timely appropriate solutions to constantly improve the quality of training, meet the requirements of the labor market.

In addition, the apprenticeship and vocational training contract signed between the enterprise and the learner for the implementation of training at the enterprise (supervised and managed by the Chamber of Commerce) ensures the rights and the High responsibility of both parties on teaching and learning. We should study and refer to this regime to guide and advise businesses that are participating in vocational training as well as apply in projects that are piloting training models of digging training create. /.

Vietnam Vocational Education and Training Accreditation Agency - DVET


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