Dual vocational training system is the key to the success of the Germany’s economy.
1. Overview of Germany’s dual vocational training system
Students are trained about 70% of the time at work and the remaining 30% at vocational education institutions. In Germany, students have three options after graduating from junior secondary schools: dual vocational training, full - time apprenticeship at vocational education institutions or study at university. Therefore, the dual training model is only one of two vocational training models of Germany. This also explains why Germany’s vocational school usually has students who learn dual vocational training system and students follow the model of full-time training at the school.
There are about 20% of enterprises participating in dual training. The average investment for a double apprentice is 18,000 euros/year but about two-thirds of the total cost will be offset by learners' participation in the production process. The creation of such a model, so that dual training is called the backbone of the vocational training system in Germany.
2. Applying dual vocational training system
- Implementing dual vocational training system in enterprises and vocational education institutions:
Training in enterprises:
Training at enterprises must comply with the regulations issued by the Government. Enterprises carry out the registration procedures with the Chamber of Commerce managed in the area to be granted a training license. Learners who want to learn vocational training under the dual vocational training model often actively seek information and apply for registration with enterprises. Note that learners find enrolling with businesses, not vocational vocational education institutions, although about 30% of the time in vocational education institutions are compulsory. The following enterprises check the profile and actual capacity of the learners, if they meet the requirements, the enterprises and learners will sign a training contract. The contract between the two parties is a legal basis for adjusting the contract implementation process of the enterprise. The content of the contract is similar to the labour contract, specifically the following contents: training time, start time, end of training, holidays, training content, training allowances for learners enjoy and liquidation of contracts. Enterprises are obliged to implement training in actual working conditions (teachers are workers in enterprises, modern equipment ...), must pay training allowances for learners on the basis of agreement between the two parties, and pay other expenses.
Training in vocational education institutions:
Different from training in enterprise provided by the Federal Government, training in vocational education institutions is regulated by each state government. State governments invest and pay the full cost of training at vocational schools. The supervision of vocational training includes a quality assessment conducted by the school inspection agency - under each state government.
The content of vocational training in dual training is carried out under the framework curriculum (framework curriculum), which includes basic subjects for specialized study and specialized theoretical content to support the training in enterprises, other subjects such as soft skills, foreign languages, physical ...
Teachers at vocational schools include: general subject teachers, vocational theory and teachers of practical subjects. The requirement for teachers is to have a Master's degree equivalent to level 7 in the National Qualification Framework. Teachers are trained in 2 stages including university study period (from 4.5 to 5 years, including practice at a vocational school and a business) and the probationary period lasts from 1 to 2 years to observe teaching as well as direct teaching supervised. Learners must pass the exam to end each newly graduated period.
- Training standard:
Training standards in the dual training model include training regulations and curriculum framework to train vocational schools. Corporate training standards set by the Federal Ministry (Federal Ministry) are usually the Federal Ministry of Industry and Energy (BMWi) after the consensus of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. There have been training standards for 328 training occupations in the system of dual vocational training. The content of training standards for each occupation includes the following contents: (i) training name (ii) training time (iii) Describe knowledges, skills and competencies to be achieved for training occupation, (iv) instruct the training plan, distribution structure of the content and training schedule (v) learners' assessment and assessment requirements to meet training requirements.
Training programs and plans at enterprises ensure harmony with the framework program at vocational schools so that the training contents in two locations are suitable and complementary. Each state government also bases its training standards on developing or updating training programs at vocational education institutuons.
- Test, evaluation, graduation certificate
The period of dual apprenticeship is from 2 to 3.5 years depending on the field of careers and the level of training in the national qualification framework. Germany's national qualification framework (issued in 2013) provides 8 levels of qualification, ensuring reference with 8 levels in the European qualification framework, in which vocational training levels include level 3, level 4 and Level 6. Graduates of dual vocational training are placed at level 3 or level 4 depending on the registered training course (level 3 with a 2-year training period, level 4 with a training period of 3-3.5 years). To graduate, students must pass national standardized testing. Content theory and practice in graduation exams in all 16 states ensure the same standard. Particularly the theory exam is held jointly, at the same time nationwide. Thus, although the training content in vocational education institutions may not be exactly the same due to the provisions of different state governments, the graduation exam must ensure national unity and diplomas granted according to the national qualification framework.
The graduation exam is organized by the Chamber of Commerce. The Chamber of Commerce is responsible for selecting those who are qualified and qualified to participate in the Inspection Council, including representatives of employers and employees (nominated by the Business Association) and school teachers profession (managed by each State government). The members of the Inspection Council must ensure that they are present on the inspection and assessment days and the Council is responsible for recording the procedures in the inspection and recording process and certificates for the graduates.