Reform of technical and vocational education and training in our country in the context of globalization is facing many great opportunities, but also many difficulties and challenges. The selection of feasible and breakthrough solutions is vital for the vocational education system in the coming time.
Reform of technical and vocational education and training in our country in the context of globalization is facing many great opportunities, but also many difficulties and challenges. The selection of feasible and breakthrough solutions is vital for the vocational education system in the coming time. In which, re-planning the network, assigning autonomy to public vocational training institutions is considered as internal solutions to improve the quality of training and increase the competitiveness between training institutions.
Streamlined and effective apparatus
Law on Vocational Education and Training is issued in 2014 as a breakthrough, aimed at institutionalizing strongly the policy of fundamental and comprehensive reform of vocational education, solving many inadequacies in practice, creating a new face of the vocational education system in Vietnam. From 1st January 2017, the Ministry of Labour Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) officially received the transfer of state management on vocational education, receiving all secondary vocational education and training schools, vocational education and training colleges from the Ministry of Education and Training. After more than two years of transfer, the state management apparatus on vocational education is strengthened from the central to the local. The management is carried out in the direction of strong decentralization for localities and increasing autonomy, coupled with self-responsibility of the vocational training institutions.
According to, the vocational education system has 1.989 institutions (including: 409 vocational education and training colleges, 583 secondary vocational education and training schools and 997 vocational education and training centers) has decreased 1.954 institutions (including: 394 vocational education and training colleges, 515 secondary vocational education and training schools and 1.045 vocational education training centers. Although there have been initial results, in fact, the network of vocational training institutions is still inadequate in distribution among regions, regions, professions and training levels; training scale of many schools is still small; even the merger of vocational training institutions in some localities is administrative and mechanical, there is no mechanism to ensure the operational efficiency of the vocational training institutions after reorganizing...
Re-planning the network of vocational training institutions to ensure a streamlined, rational structure, effective operation is considered one of the important solutions to reorganize the vocational education system. In order to implement the Resolution 19-NQ / TW of the Sixth Party Central Committee's Conference on continuing to renovate the organization and management system, improve the quality and operational efficiency of the public enterprises, the arrangement and planning of networks of vocational training institutions must be in an open and flexible manner to meet the labour demand of the labour market; ensuring the scale, structure and rationality of occupations, training levels, regions, regions, standardization, modernization and quality stratification training levels.
Students visit the study model at Ho Chi Minh City Technical College II
The Director General of Directorate of Vocational Education and Training (Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs) Nguyen Hong Minh said that he will resolutely dissolve secondary vocational education and training schools, vocational education and training colleges; step by step merging public secondary vocational education and training school into public vocational education and training colleges. In order to drastically reduce the focal point, overcome the overlap, spread and overlap in functions and tasks as at present. Besides, priority is given to enterprises participating in setting up vocational training institutions, encouraging the establishment of new non-public and foreign-invested educational institutions; strengthening socialization of vocational training institutions in potential areas. Concentrating resources to invest in some high-quality vocational training institutions, key occupations and trades which have been planned according to levels (international, ASEAN and national areas).
Promoting autonomy associated with accountability
Implementing regulations on the mechanism of autonomy and self-responsibility for the performance of tasks and finance for public non-business units in Decree No. 43/2006 /ND-CP dated April 25, 2006, vocational training institutions have made positive changes, public non-business units in the vocational education sector have been more active in the performance of tasks, organizational structure, management and use of funds.
However, solving the autonomy and accountability problem in a thorough and effective way, it is necessary to have a roadmap and efforts from both state agencies and public vocational training institutions. The current public vocational training institutions face many difficulties in financial autonomy, training apparatus and activities... Financial autonomy is considered the most important and decisive factor. But in fact, public vocational training institutions have only limited autonomy, the revenue still has many constraints, especially on tuition fees. With the current prescribed tuition fees, many schools are not enough to cover the cost of quality training, failing to ensure regular activities leading to financial autonomy is not really.
Associate Professor Ph.D Mac Van Tien, Former Director of National Institute of Vocational Education and Training Science said: together with autonomy, training institutions must be accountable to competent state agencies, explain to the society, including enterprises on their training quality...
Mr. Pham Xuan Khanh, Rector of Hanoi Vocational College of High Technology shared: The school determined to implement autonomy and self-responsibility with learners, businesses, society and the school itself as a breakthrough solution to help improve the quality of training and reputation of the school. In addition to the state budget revenues, the school has boosted production and service activities, scientific research, commercialized products produced by teachers and students, established creative start-up centers ... to increase revenue. Since then, improving service quality, improving incomes for officials and teachers, creating motivation for improving training quality...
In fact, vocational training institutions are encouraged to register autonomy, but have still limited in the training targets, tuition fees and fees. Mr. Pham Xuan Khanh, Rector of Hanoi Vocational College of High Technology suggested that the Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs and related ministries and agencies should soon issue regulations on implementing autonomy in the field of vocational education. It is necessary to have mechanisms and policies to support and encourage autonomy. Modify and complete synchronous policy mechanisms to enhance autonomy in training and school management activities, to create flexibility to adapt to the rapid development of scientific and public research qualifications technology and labour market requirements. Develop criteria and level of relationship between autonomy and self-responsibility of vocational training institutions.
Provisions of the Law on Vocational Education and Training, vocational education institutions are entitled to autonomy and self-responsibility in developing training programs and curricula to apply to their establishments. At the same time, to implement the open, diversified and flexible vocational training system, together with guidelines on formal training, the Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs has issued three circulars prescribing: regular training ; training in both working and learning forms; distance training, self-study, guidance on creating legal corridors for vocational training institutions to build, develop training programs and training forms; conditions for learners of all ages have the opportunity to learn continuously, lifelong learning to improve their professional qualifications and skills, and contribute to building a learning society.