Historical stages of stage management agency on vocational education and training (VET)
Since 1955 stage management agency on vocational training has been changed throughout many intermadiate stages, as followed:
- From 1955 to 1978:
+ 1955 - 1969: The Ministry of Labour (Department of labour management);
+ 1969 - 1978: The Ministry of Labour (Department ofworkers training)
- From 1978 to 1987: The Cabinet Council (General Department of Vocational Training - GDVT);
- From 1987 to 1990: The Ministry of Higher Education, Professional
Secondary Education and Vocational Training (Department of TVET);
- From 1990 to 1998: The Ministry of Education and Training – MOET
(Department ofProfessional Secondary Education and Vocational Training);
- From 1998 to present: The Ministry of Labour – Invalids and Social
Affairs – MOLISA (General Department of Vocational Training).The development history of vocational training
Vietnam’s vocational education and training (VET) has a long development historyassociated with the existence ofwet rice civilization and traditional crafts villages. The ancient Vietnamese sustained their traditional craft and livelihoods to pass on skills to the next generation under natural handing mimic form in prehistoric era to imitating consciously and passing on traditional skills on each occasion in theWard.
In the late 19th Century, formal education and training had been provided in some vocational training institutions such as Hanoi practical engineering school (1898), Hue practical engineering school (1889), Saigon mechanical engineering school (1889), Haiphong practical engineering school (1913). The first years of 20th Century have thus been marked by the appearance of first vocational institution’s establishment including different types of programme: vocational training in enterprise, school-based vocational training, etc. At that time, certain amount of trainees attended to the course thusinfluenced the supply of skilled labor in the sufficient quantity. Most of trained labors went within light industrial segment, consumer product sector orexploitation of natural resources in priority in order to bring profits for Frenchcolonialists.
After 1945 August Revolution and France unsuccessful nine-year conflict (1945-1954), despite of unfavorable condition for development, vocational education and training has been promptly accessed by many workers and officials in the field of national defense, healthcare, agriculture and education with small group/class settings in short term allocated in war base or free zone and often engaged in learning by working, task-specific practicing, attaching to circumstances that called all Vietnamese people resist for comprehensive resistance.
Following the historic victory of Dien Bien Phu Battle in 1954, the country was temporarily separated into two zones. The vocational training had been rapidly developed in the northern zone with effective support from other socialist countries to meet both requirements of strategic development and unification. Meeting the basic needs and the demand of human resource development to strengthen the northern area and liberate the controlled southern area thus rebuild the economy and improve living standards, the Government had established a Directorate of technical workers training under the Ministry of Labour. It would be considered a milestone decision marking the formation and development of vocational education.
From 1955 to 2014, state management agency on vocational training has changed as follow:
- From 1955 to 1978: The Ministry of Labour
+ 1955 - 1969: On 18 May 1955, the Government issued Decree No. 532/TTg on the establishment of the Department ofLabour Management under the Ministry of Labour. 30 training insitutions were approved with training scale up to 14.000 trainees per year.
+ 1969 - 1978: On 9 October 1969, the Government issued Decree No. 200/CP on the establishment of the Department ofWorkers Training under the Ministry of Labour. 159 training institutions were approved with training scale up to 48.000 trainees per year.
- From 1978 to 1987: On 24 June 1978, the Government issued Decree No. 151/NĐ-CP on the decision ofseparating the Department of Workers Training from the Ministry of Labour becoming the General Department of Vocational Training and reporting directly to the Cabinet Council.
In this period, vocational training sector was a way to go for any economy to flourish and diversify. The number of VET institutions and vocational centerspeaked at 366 and 212 with overall 9833 teachers and training scale up to 176000 students per year. Another outstanding results must be the VET centers system at local level for short term vocational training workforce under the motto “the State, collectives and individual together give in mind to improving career training”.Vocational training was the first sector in the national education system carrying out socialization and breaking a dominant mechanism of central planning bureaucracy. VET had speeded up the process of internationalization, promoted international cooperation and exchanges, expanded areas of cooperation:Vietnam hosted and participated in the Conference on Heads of vocational training sector in Socialist countries, upbringing about 80.000 youths and laborers abroad to improve vocational training skills in Soviet Union, German Democratic Republic (East German), Czechoslovakia, China, North Korea, Hungary, Romania, Poland and Bulgaria etc.Technical workers after training had a great opportunity to access to the advanced manufactoring and industrial technology to contribute their productive capacitites to countries comprehensive development.
- From 1987 to 1990: GDVTmerged into the Ministry of Higher Education and Professional Secondary Education in 1987, then into theMinistry of Higher Education, Professional Secondary Education and Vocational Training as Department of TVET. The vocational training system contained 198 institutions with training scale fell under 78.000 trainees per year.
- From 1990 to 1998: On 31 M arch 1990, the Cabinet Council issued Decision No. 244-NQ/HĐNN8 on the establishment of the Ministry of Education and Training based on theMinistry of Higher Education, Professional Secondary Education and Vocational Training. VET fell further into decline in State management as Department of Professional Secondary Education and Vocational Training since the educational policy makers underestimated the importance of VET. In consequence, only 129 institutions got approval with training scale declined below 55.000 trainees per year.
- From 1998 to present: GDVT was again separated from MOET and moved into MOLISA after the Government has been working to strengthen the VET system to respond the increased demand for highly skilled workers when foreign investment began to arrive in Vietnam for improving effectiveness of science and technology for industrialization and modernization of the country. Pursuant to Decision of the Politburo (document No. 1481-CV/VPTW dated on 8 December 1997), the Prime Minister signed the Decision No. 67/1998/QĐ-TTg dated on 26 March 1998 regarding State management transfer on vocational training from MOET to MOLISA; on 23 May 1998, the Government issued Decree No. 33/1998/NĐ-CP on the establishment of GDVT as a functional unit under MOLISA.
All of the above decisions created new developing steps for vocational training at the early years of 21st century. Despite of difficulties, the Government has been working to overcome of falling further into decline to strengthen the TVET system to respond to increased demand for skilled workers. Effective legal system and regulatory framework are uniformly applied to regulate vocational training for strong sustainable and balanced growth, such as (Law on Education, Law on Vocational Training, Plan for Development of a Network of Vocational Colleges, Vocational Secondary Schools, and Vocational Training Centers; TVET Development Strategy period 2011-2020, etc.). Vietnam TVET system is a diversified and segregated structure comprising parallel formal and regular delivery to meet labor markets demand and the goals proposed in the country development strategy to become a substantially industrialized and modernized in the process of international integration of economy.
Concerning human resources training and development, VET system has started to change from supply to demand trainees in association with enterprises to better meet the vocational training needs of employees and enhance national competitiveness. Asof May 2014, vocational training began to expand increasingly with 165 vocational colleges, 301 vocational secondary schools, 874 vocational training centers and other on-the-job vocational training institutions over the country, thus contributed to raise the proportion of trained labors from 13,4% in 1998 to 34,9% in 2013. The increased in financial investment for vocational training through target programs, international cooperation projects (by ADB, German Federal Republic, Korea, Switzerland, Denmark, France, Austria, ILO, etc.) and resource mobilization for socialization plays an important roles for ensuring quality, developing VET system to meet/export labor market demand, modernizing, standardizing, socializing and regionally and internationally integrating with improving quality and efficiency.
During its development process, VET sector has made significant contributions to rebuild the economy’s competitiveness and protect territorial integrity. Many vocational training institutions have been growing rapidly; teachers, lecturers, managerial staffs, officials and students adopt spirit and follow historical and cultural tradition. Activitiesas Vocational Skills Competitions at different level (National, Asean,Worldskills), National Vocational Teacher Contest, Self-made Vocational Equipment Contest, etc. have become regular programs from VET institutions to nationwide with best results for many of them reach great achievementsas thousands teachers to be honored as best teachers from local to provincial level, hundreds of them to be awarded/titled Nguyen Van Troi prize, People’s Teacher or have become high-ranking officials within the State Party; technical experts, skilled workers,; many students have won prizes on the outstanding vocational exams at provincial, national and international level; millions of labors have been training and working in factories, enterprises on construction sites, fields that meet the needs of modern economy and society.
To put the Vietnamese Government’s Development Strategy proposed Vietnam to become an industrialized and modernized country by 2020 into practice, human resources development was one of the three strategic breakthrough solutions in which vocational training quality was regarded as a critical element in socio-economic development with training commitment at 60-65% of the total workforce. The Prime Minister issued Decision No. 630/QĐ-TTg dated on 29 May 2012 on approving Vocational Training Development Strategy during 2011-2020 periodwith goals set forth as follow: by 2020, vocational training will meet the requirement of high quality human resources in terms of quantity and quality, structure and qualification level; training quality in some pilot vocations recognized by the advanced countries in the Asean region or in the world;creating high skilled labor force to improve national competitiveness; providing universal training solutions for restructuring labors, rasing income, reducing poverty and ensuring social security.